Pashto-English Bilingual Data

Testing the Diagnostic Features for the Patterns of Codemixing


  • Arshad Ali Khan Institute of Communication and Cultural Studies, UMT, Lahore
  • Nadeem Haider Bukhari Professor, Department of English, University of AJ&K, Muzaffarabad
  • Amina Khalid Institute of Communication and Cultural Studies, UMT, Lahore


Patterns of code-mixing, Insertion, alternation, congruent lexicalization morphosyntactic constraints


This study examines the patterns of code-mixing in Pashto-English bilingual data. The framework for the present research is based on the diagnostics features for code-mixing proposed by Muysken (2000). In order to investigate the research question, 25 clips of Pashto speech community have been transcribed and analyzed. The diagnostic features: the single constituent, the nested a b a, and the selected position of the bilingual elements determine that insertion is the dominant pattern of CM. The study empirically support that insertion is predicted in colonial settings where there is asymmetry in the bilingual’s proficiency, and where one of the languages plays a dominant role. The study reveals that the subject-verb agreement, morpheme order, and the late system morpheme (bridge, outsider) play a crucial role to maintain the morphosyntactic frame of Pashto language. The switched elements in the bare DP and the bilingual VP are content words following the MO and SM principles of the Pashto language.







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