Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr <p><strong><em>KASHMIR JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE RESEARCH (KJLR)</em></strong> operates on a double-blind peer review policy; it is a scholarly journal of international recognition which publishes papers that report the findings of original research on the current trends and topics in literature, languages, and linguistics. The journal strives to advance scholarly and scientific discussion of issues that bring together or differentiate between scholars in above mentioned fields. Contributions handling applied linguistic problems in a principled way by reference to theoretical studies are of major interest for <em><strong>KJLR</strong></em>.</p> <p>Publication material in journal means that the author assigns copyright to KJLR including the right to electronic publishing. However, authors may use their material in others publications acknowledging <strong>KJLR</strong> as the original place of publication. Requests by third parties for permission should be addressed to the Editor, <strong>KJLR</strong>.</p> KASHMIR JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE RESEARCH (KJLR) en-US Kashmir Journal of Language Research 1028-6640 The prediction of morphemes distribution at surface and abstract level https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/6 <p>The present research explores the election of Embedded Language (EL) nonfinite verbs at surface level with respect to its activation at abstract level. It also investigates the argument that non-finite verbs are elected at lexical-conceptual level. The framework used in the present research is the 4-M model (Myers-Scotton, 2002) of morpheme classification for the prediction of distribution of the EL non-finite verbs at surface level in relation to abstract structure level. This research tries to answer the question: How the EL nonfinite verbs are elected at the abstract level in relation to surface level data? Approximately 8.49 hours bilingual data was collected from a sample of three groups is transcribed and only EL language verbs (nonfinite) are focused and discussed in the present research. According to the classification of 4-M model nonfinite verbs as content morphemes are salient only at lexical-conceptual level to its lemma specification of the speaker’s intended semantic-pragmatic meanings. The nature of the EL nonfinite verbs also suggests its activation as fast and easy with low cost at the abstract level because its integration is made possible by the ML inflection morphemes for tense, aspect and outsider morpheme for subject-verb agreement. On the other hand the EL finite verbs are hard to find in the present data also suggest its complicated morphosyntactic nature. This is the first attempt in Pashto-English bilingual data that the 4-M model of morpheme classification is used to predict a relationship of the empirical data and its election at abstract level. The present study suggest that the model of morpheme classification could also be extended to the morpheme activation (L1 and L2) in second language acquisition.</p> Arshad Ali Khan Nadeem Haider Bukhari Amina Khalid Syed Nasir Abbass Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 19 Linguistic Landscape in Swat, Pakistan https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/7 <p>This paper explores the multilingual character of the linguistic landscape of Swat, a generally monolingual district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The focus of the study is commercial public signs and is based on an empirical research conducted in 2018. A total of 204 digital photos of shop fronts were collected and analysed in terms of language composition employing Kress and van Leeuwen’s (1996) framework of visual analysis and comparisons were drawn across different shop types. The findings indicate that the majority of the shops signs are bilingual combining English and Urdu, while English appears to be the preferred choice in monolingual signs. The results also strongly suggest that there is an underlying competition between two languages enjoying co-official status but occupying different symbolic niches.</p> Alexander Nikolaou Sabina Shah Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 19 Politics of Language and Discourse in One Man’s Bible by Gao Xingjian https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/8 <p>Drawing on the power of discourse in Foucault’s concept of panopticism, of language in the Deleuzean concept of territorialisation, and Althusser’s interpellation, my study focuses on how Gao Xingjian dismantles the grand narrative of the Cultural Revolution in his second novel One Man’s Bible. Deploying textual, critical discourse and stylistic analyses as key tools to analyse selected data, this paper highlights the way a panoptic political order ‘hails’ and ‘recruits’ an intellectual hence marginal subject to participate in a culture of violence that comes to dominate the Chinese street politics during 1966-76. So pervasive is the hold of its ‘command-words’ that it transforms the very nature of his subjectivity, rendering him ‘docile and serviceable’; not only harmless to the state but also pliantly serving the cause, interest and ideology of the Party in power. To shake off the power-effects, one needs a new form of ‘deterritorialised’ or ‘counter’ subjectivity evoked by Deleuze and Foucault respectively, and symbolically represented in the physical act of ‘flight' from home. By absconding from the scene of violence, the self-exile thwarts the forces of oppression in their attempt to subjectify him, and takes charge of his own subjectivity. This is an area which has not stirred any debate in the critical circles yet, hence the study has potential to be an important addition to literature on Gao.</p> Farida Chishti Assistant Professor, Dept. of English Language and Literature, University of the Punjab, Lahore Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 11 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s Speech in the General Assembly of United Nations https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/9 <p>This paper applies critical discourse analysis to analyze the discourse of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s (hereafter Bhutto) speech which he made in the United Nations General Assembly in 1971. The study tries to determine the connotation of the ideology of his words for a country which was affected by the chaos of Indo-Pak war in 1971. Ultimately, this pandemonium resulted in the formation of a new state called Bangladesh. For the present study, qualitative methodology using Fairclough’s model for critical discourse analysis has been employed. The outcomes of the present study revealed that Bhutto wanted to show the world that Pakistan is not a ship without a captain. He truly represented the emotion and feelings of a scrupulous nation. Bhutto tried to demonstrate himself as a real leader of the country in that particular span of time in the United Nations. In the history of Pakistani politics, there has been no Pakistani leader except him who could dare to use such oratory against and in front of these superpowers on their home turf. It’s a vivid fact that Bhutto’s speech had both practical and theoretical implications and through Fairclough’s model both aforementioned implications through text analysis are surfaced.</p> Malik Ajmal Gulzar Muhammad Mooneeeb Ali Nazir Ahmad Malik Rashida Perveen Shumaila Zaman Kiyani Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 14 Voicing Sexism https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/10 <p>Sexist language degrades and belittles the dignity of an individual or group of individuals, generally females. Such careless use of language yields standardized social and cultural codes. The researches during the last four decades reflect occurrences of sexism in the curricula. The present study examines sexism imbued in the contents of the primary level English textbooks. Five textbooks being used from grades 1 to 5 have been analyzed in the light of gender theory employing Mixed Methods research. The study comes up that despite serious commitments of the Government of Pakistan to eliminate gender bias from the education setups the contents of the study material contain the discourses which reinforce the sexist construction and contribute to the transformation and naturalization of gender inequality and stereotypes. The findings imply that practical and serious efforts are required to translate the commitments of the government into reality.</p> Shamshad Rasool Saiqa Imtiaz Asif Behzad Anwar Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 15 Ideology of Hegemony and False Consciousness in YA Literature https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/11 <p>Twentieth century is marked by a significant focus on commodity fetishism encircling almost all arenas of modern society. While few decades ago, literature was designated as an exercise meant only for the educated and blue stocking strata of the society, the literature accessible today is grasping youth in its web owing to its concentration on delineating challenging young heroes and heroines. Hence, YA literature in fiction is broadening its horizons by accommodating blistering issues being confronted by youth such as sexuality, race, identity crisis, depression, suicide and drug addiction. But under the garb of such depiction lies a deep-rooted ideology and false consciousness that is penetrated in adolescent minds gradually. The ideology is imposed typically by means of what Althusser calls RSA’s and ISA’s. Such hegemonic tools become conspicuous in furthering the exploitation and dehumanization of the proletariat class. The purpose of this research is to highlight the similar underpinnings in The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins.</p> Shumaila Noreen Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 13 Self-transformation through Traumatic Encounter https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/12 <p>The events of September 11, 2001 were responsible for physically and psychologically devastating the lives of millions of people directly or indirectly, exhibiting aggression, sorrow and trauma. The aftermath of the incident brought Muslim immigrants to a precarious position where the name became synonymous with terrorism. Muslim immigrants in the US and other countries became vulnerable to the outcome of this tragic experience. Consequent upon this overwhelming life experience, numerous studies including fictional creations have been undertaken to analyze the psychological effects of September 11 and the identity crisis in its aftermath. The present study was conducted to present and illustrate the concept of psychological trauma and self-transformation of female immigrants in the aftermath of the 9/11 tragedy. The analysis is based on Shaila Abdullah’s novel Saffron Dreams (2009) focusing on the complex process of traumatic healing. The study concludes that the novel does not only portray the traumatic encounters of immigrants but also showcases the process of healing and overcoming traumatic distress of those directly involved in the tragedy of 9/11.</p> Aamir Shehzad Shaheena Ayub Bhatti Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 9 Neo-colonialism, Elitist Discourse and the Silent Subaltern in Kamila Shamsie’s novels https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/13 <p>In ‘The Post-Colonial Studies Reader’, Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffin state: All Post-Colonial societies are still subject in one way or another to overt or subtle forms of neo-colonial domination, and independence has not solved this problem. The development of new elites within independent societies, often buttressed by neo-colonial institutions; the development of internal divisions based on racial, linguistic or religious discriminations; the continuing unequal treatment of indigenous people…all these testify to the fact that post-colonialism is a continuing process of resistance and reconstruction. (Ashcroft 2) The world in Shamsie’s novels is a postcolonial world where neo-colonialism reigns supreme. Here the past and present forms of resistance, oppression and exploitation exacerbate and perpetuate. While condemning neo-colonialism, Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana’s first post-independence president, said: Neo-colonialism… is the worst form of imperialism. For those who practice it, it means power without responsibility and for those who suffer from it, it means exploitation without redress. In the days of old-fashioned colonialism, the imperial power had at least to explain and justify at home the actions it was taking abroad. In the colony who served the ruling imperial power could at least look to its protection against any violent move by their opponent. With neo-colonialism neither is the case. (Nkrumah xi) Neo- colonialism suggests the indirect control of former colonies through the exploitation of their economic and cultural dependence. In this case a country is unable to exercise its own power and take any vital decisions about itself, but is governed and dictated through the native elite who is compliant with the neo-colonial powers. This article explores the representation of neo-colonialism in Shamsie’s novels In the City by the Sea, Kartography, and Salt and Saffron.</p> Naila Sahar Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 17 Cohesion in Surat al-Fatiha (??????? ): A Linguistic study https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/14 <p><em>This article aims to examine the first mandatory feature of a text under Text Linguistic Approach namely cohesion in the opening chapter of the Qur’?n, </em><em>S?rat al-</em><em>F?ti?a (</em><strong>???????</strong><em>). The study takes into account cohesive devices and their function in making meaning and constructing textual relation within and across the verses. The article begins with the theoretical</em><em> framework of the Text Linguistic Approach, the p</em><em>arameters and functions of </em><em>c</em><em>ohesion</em><em> in a text by focusing</em><em> on Halliday and Ruqaiya Hasan’s (1976) model. It, then, briefly reviews the approaches to the Qur’?nic interpretations contributed by the classical and modern scholars. </em><em>It </em><em>goes on to analyze the S?rah by applying the parameters of cohesion under Text Linguistic Approach focusing on </em><em>ellipsis, conjunction, references and lexical cohesion. It also analyzes the </em><em>functional aspects of these devices in creating meaning, interdependencies, and harmony in the S?rah. </em><em>The study closes with some speculations about the method as a potent approach to understand the Qur’?n. </em></p> Farhat Meher Ayaz Afsar Copyright (c) 2020 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 14 Narrative Structure of Harry Potter and Philosopher’s Stone https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/15 <p>The phenomenal success of the Harry Potter series has not only mesmerised the general public but has also captured the attention of academia for varied reasons. The present study is an attempt to unveil the narrative structure of Harry Potter and Philosopher’s Stone by applying Barthes’ narrative codes using a Corpus based methodology. Since the rigorous analysis of big data manually is a challenging and time taking task, the researcher decided to analyse the data by using Wmatrix, a corpus tool especially designed to analyse literary texts. The narrative codes were identified by using word frequency, Parts of Speech tagging and Semantic tagging. The result of the study shows that with the help of corpus tools Proairetic, hermeneutic and cultural codes can be identified. The study also reveals the importance of Barthe’s narrative codes for the analysis of literary texts.</p> Ameer Sultan Muhammad Safeer Awan Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 13 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Research Consultations in Higher Education https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/16 <p>This qualitative case study research in ethnography aimed to investigate the notions of power and hegemony in research consultations around the construct of language ideologies. The study selected two MS (Education) research supervisees with their supervisors as two case studies. For the empirical exploration of the notions of power and hegemony in supervision practices, the study used the analytical approach of Norman Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) (1989; 2003). The findings of the study revealed how language became a source of power relations between the research participants. Language was a major concern in the consultation meetings, which became a source of establishing asymmetrical power relations between the participants. The case two was in a sharp contrast with case one in approach and style of supervision in its flexibility of supervision.</p> Aliya Sikandar Nasreen Hussain Maya Khemlani David Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 17 The Landscape of Vertical Wilderness https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/17 <p>This paper examines the novel Thinner than Skin by Anglophone Pakistani writer Uzma Aslam Khan, and especially her deployment of an alternate vision of Pakistan's Northern area and its complex geography, history and environmentalism. Set in Pakistan's vibrant, culturally diverse and magnificent landscapes described as “vertical wilderness" in the Himalayan and Karakorum regions, the author explores the relationship between culture, and the non-human nature, and explores a sense of place that is replete with regional, local and external threats that constantly thwart the local landscape and its ecosystem. In the novel, Khan raises important questions regarding the rapid degradation of the forest environment, the fate of indigenous nomadic people and issues related to the conservation of wildlife in the background of neoliberalism and development. The analsyis shows that the environment and the local cultures in Paksitans Northern areas are under threat with potentially undesraible impact and will continue further if left unaddressed.</p> Monazza Makhdoom Munazza Yaqoob Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 22 2 1 12