Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr <p><strong><em>KASHMIR JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE RESEARCH (KJLR)</em></strong> operates on a double-blind peer review policy; it is a scholarly journal of international recognition which publishes papers that report the findings of original research on the current trends and topics in literature, languages, and linguistics. The journal strives to advance scholarly and scientific discussion of issues that bring together or differentiate between scholars in above mentioned fields. Contributions handling applied linguistic problems in a principled way by reference to theoretical studies are of major interest for <em><strong>KJLR</strong></em>.</p> <p>Publication material in journal means that the author assigns copyright to KJLR including the right to electronic publishing. However, authors may use their material in others publications acknowledging <strong>KJLR</strong> as the original place of publication. Requests by third parties for permission should be addressed to the Editor, <strong>KJLR</strong>.</p> en-US snhb67@gmail.com (Prof. Dr. Nadeem Haider Bukhari) kjlr.ajku@gmail.com (Mr. Zafeer Kiani) Mon, 21 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Gender Performativity and Identity Construction https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/257 <p><em>Linguistic choices often reveal gender identity which reinforces the notion of gender performativity introduced by Butler (1990; 1999). This qualitative study using discourse analysis as its framework, was undertaken with the aim to explore how the linguistic choices made by beggars who have the same intention --- the intention of extracting money or food --- synchronize with the notion of gender performativity. The data for the study are based on the discourse of beggars in some of the major cities and hill stations in Pakistan. Since the study focused on gender differences in the employment of language used for begging, the data were collected by employing both convenience and stratified sampling techniques based on the discourse of 50 beggars: 25 male and 25 female beggars of different age groups. The speech acts of beggars were analyzed with reference to five major categories: number of utterances produced within a single speech act, the syntactic features of beggars’ discourse, the nature of the request for help, the kind of prayers offered in exchange of help and the nature of their verbal responses in case of the denial of help from their potential benefactors. The results of the study show significant gender differences in the use of beggars’ discourse. The study is a significant contribution in the field of research on gender differences in discourse style in general and differences in the discourse of beggars, in particular. The study’s significance also lies in its attempt to explore the manipulative function of discourse, and seen from this perspective, beggars’ discourse is not much different from political discourse and the discourse of advertising, as in both the cases the aim is to appeal to the psychology of the target audience.</em></p> Kaleem Raza Khan, Shumaila Shafket Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/257 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 A Writer’s Urge for a Cathartic Narrativization https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/258 <p><em>Kashmir, post 1990, has become a land rife with the struggle for freedom by the Kashmiri militants and the resultant military invasion by the Indian Government.&nbsp; As the clash between the military and the militants gains momentum, the native Kashmiris experience a major shift in their lives. The natives, irrespective of religious affiliations, endure the worst of violence. The collective cries for freedom resulted in attracting the antagonism of the Indian Army for the Kashmiri Muslims as well as the exodus of the Kashmiri pundits. The trauma of exile as well as the trauma of the violence perpetrated by the Indian Army is formative of a memory which becomes a permanent communal identity marker of Kashmiris. With each violent event, the traumatic memory evolves, and each tragedy contributes to complete the picture of victimization in the conflict Zone. Whereas the violent events reduce the Kashmiris to living ghosts, the narrations of the stories of these victims help them relieve the burden of their traumatic memory. Basharat Peer, the writer of Curfewed Nights (2011), feels the drive to write on Kashmir each time he comes across a victim. Curfewed Nights manifests the force of the traumatic narrations which compel the writer to listen to the tragedies and to pen these down. Writing becomes an obligation for the writer for it seems to work not merely as his own catharsis but also as a means to recover the victims. The study of the text Curfewed Nights is supported by the works of Cathy Caruth (1995), Shoshana Felman (2002), and other writers in Trauma Studies. This research argues that narrating the traumatic experiences by the victims is therapeutic in nature for them and narrativizing the collective traumatic memory is helpful in relieving the writer of the pain inflicted upon him by bearing the burden of an ever-growing traumatic memory.</em></p> Fatima Syeda, Rija Batool Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/258 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Finite Verb Morphology in Pahari https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/259 <p><em>This paper presents the analysis and description of finite verb morphology in Pahari spoken in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Similar to other sister languages, verbs in Pahari too inflects for tense, aspect, and mood and also reflects gender, number, person and honour. Tenses and aspects in most of the languages of the world are realised through morphological means. This study identifies that the suffixes on verbs encode the habitual and progressive aspects while the perfective aspects are encoded by light verbs in complex predicates. Pahari distinguishes between simple and complex tense forms. The simple tense is formed by the main verb alone bearing tense, aspect and agreement morphology whereas the complex tense is formed by the main verb followed by an auxiliary, where the auxiliary carries tense information. The future tense in Pahari is encoded by a suffix on the main verb.&nbsp; Both the main verb and auxiliary inflect for person gender and number. In some cases where the construction has no auxiliary, the main verb itself is marked for person, gender and number. Pahari verbs show distinction of imperative, subjunctive and presumptive moods which show different attitudes of the speaker. The study shows that imperative mood is indicated with the verb stem, without any modification. The verb in the Imperative mood occurs in agreement with the person of the subject, and it is not inflected for tense, aspect.&nbsp; Pahari uses the presumptive for future and the subjunctive for desires and suggestions. The use of subjunctive mood is conditioned to certain words and phrases, particularly those words and phrases expressing contingency or doubt, and also by some kinds of dependent clauses. The presumptive mood in Pahari is used to express hypothesis, uncertainty or presupposition</em>.</p> Shahida Khalique, Tahira Jabeen, Asma Iqbal Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/259 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Interstitial liminality, Assimilation and Alterity in H.M. Naqvi’s Home Boy https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/261 <p><em>In the wake of 9/11 catastrophe, the ‘Muslim identity’ came under serious suspicion and investigation that suddenly captured the consciousness/conscience of both the reader and the writer of the East and the West. Especially, it caught the attention of Pakistani writers because Pakistan had (largely) to bear the brunt of this tragedy. This study has a socio-political punch in the wake of 9/11 phenomenon that has seriously affected psychology of the Pakistani Muslim community in general and youth in particular. This paper also examines pre-9/11 conditions of the Muslims who feel and find themselves assimilated, integrated because of the interstitial liminal space which give them allowance for appropriation. I argue that post-9/11 scenario they not only find themselves physically displaced but also psychologically unsettled. The moment, they land into the new-land, find themselves gripped in a psychological limbo copping with new culture, people and customs. Sometimes they feel that they belong to both the cultures and at other times to the neither. It closely studies hegemonic role of state apparatus: Federal Bureau of Investigation and Metropolitan Detention Centre and the dominant role of American media, especially CNN which had been a source of (mis)representation of Islam and Muslims. They remain under strict surveillance of the invisible eye that reduce them to mere object position. Textual analysis has been used as a research method to read H. M. Naqvi’s Home Boy. I have invoked specific theoretical concepts of Edward Said, Homi K. Bhabha, Frantz Fanon and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak for the analysis of</em> my primary text.</p> Zafar Iqbal, Mali Ajmal Gulzar, Lubna Umar, Ubaidullah Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/261 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Situational Characteristics of Pakistani University Student English https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/262 <p><em>In Pakistan, universities are one of the major domains where English is commonly used since medium of instruction in most of the universities in Pakistan is English. In universities, students are required to produce a variety of written and spoken texts. Previous studies of university student English investigated only spoken or only written registers and none of the previous studies compared academic English produced by university students in both spoken and written modes. In this context, the present study sought to explore situational variation in graduate students’ spoken and written academic English in Pakistani universities across four variables: registers, registers across disciplines, sub-registers, and sub-registers across disciplines. The study is based on Pakistani University Student English (PaUSE) corpus which contains 195 in-class presentations and 329 assignments produced by graduate students from four academic disciplines (botany, education, linguistics, and management sciences) pursuing graduate degrees in universities located in five major regions of Pakistan. Based on their communicative purposes, these presentations and assignments included in the PaUSE corpus were classified into six sub-registers (two spoken and four written): general presentations, research-based presentations, article reviews, literature reviews, research proposals, and research reports. Pakistani university student English was compared on situational characteristics across four variables. For this purpose, a framework was first developed, and the texts included in the PaUSE corpus were then compared for their situational characteristics across four variables. The findings reveal that there is considerable variation in the situational characteristics of Pakistani university student English across all variables. The findings of the present study make a strong case for exploring linguistic variation in Pakistani university student English that will be presented in future studies.</em></p> Nouman Hamid, Ayaz Afsar Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/262 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 A Descriptive Analysis of Linguistic Taboos of Urdu Language in Pakistan https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/263 <p><em>In the given time and place the understanding and the usage of taboo language varies depending on the culture, literacy, gender, age, social status, profession, upbringing so on and so forth. The linguistic taboos which are catered by this paper are from Urdu language. This paper analyzes the variation with respect to two variables that are, age and gender. The task of variation was achieved by collecting data from a sample of two hundred participants in Pakistani context which was further divided into four groups. The analysis of data was completed by the employment of both qualitative and quantitative methods of research. The analysis of the data affirms two commonly held views: first, in most of the cases taboos for the older age group are no more taboos for the younger age group, implying taboo language is fluid in nature: it keeps on changing with the course of time. Second, whatever the reason might be, women use more standardized and polite language as compared to their male counterparts. In a broader framework, the findings and analyses clearly demonstrate the close relationship that exists between language and culture. The change in linguistic taboos of Urdu language clearly shows a shift in the cultural inclination of new generation. Furthermore, the new generation is more compliant towards the taboos that were strongly prohibited by the previous generation. This paper opens up a huge plethora of unexplored topics, for instance, the future research can analyze the variation in understanding of the taboo language with respect to different variables and contexts.</em></p> Azhar Pervaiz, Faheem Arshad, Kaynat KhudaDad, Rabieah Tahir Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/263 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Gender-Based Variation in Grammatical Errors https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/264 <p><em>ESL students in AJK find English writing scary and frightening despite learning English from Grade one to Graduation level as a compulsory subject. They feel hesitation in using English in writing and speech as they are afraid of errors. This study aims to find out what type of grammatical errors ESL learners commit in their English essays at secondary level. It also intends to reveal which are the most and least frequently committed errors of these learners. It further aims to compare male and female ESL learners’ errors to determine whether any significant difference exists between the frequencies of errors committed by two different genders. Gass and Selinker’s (2008) Model for Error Analysis has been replicated to collect and analyze the data. SPSS has also been used to find out statistically significant differences among males and females in committing grammatical errors. The findings show that secondary level ESL learners commit concord, tense/aspect, word order, verb and infinitive errors. Verb related errors are the most frequent whereas infinitive errors are the least frequent ones among learners. Male and female learners differ significantly in concord, tense/aspect and word order errors; however, there is no significant difference between them in verb and infinitive errors.</em></p> Sabir Hussain Shah, Nadeem Haider Bukhari Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/264 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 It was Peace Time or they said so https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/265 <p><em>The current research is an attempt at doing postcolonial analysis of The Ministry of Utmost Happiness (2017) by Arundhati Roy, focusing upon the plight of Kashmiris as the subaltern. “Can the Subaltern Speak” (1988) by Gayatri Spivak and “Can the Subaltern be Heard?” (2007) by Maggio have been used as the theoretical frameworks. The research tries to find out the answers to the research questions that relate to the perpetual silence, coercion and deception of subaltern into oppression, in this case people of Kashmir. Moreover, it also examines the everyday culture of subaltern in order to see whether it can be heard, as suggested by Maggio. The study makes an attempt at hearing the subaltern via translation. Significance of this research can be gauged from the fact that it lays bare the means adopted by hegemonic power, Indian state in this case, to deny subaltern its due right and is a humble contribution in giving voice to Kashmiris. </em></p> Saira Rashad, Zareena Qasim Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/265 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Role of Administration in the Implementation of E-Teaching in Pakistani Educational System https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/266 <p><em>teaching program from a management’s perspective and identifies the factors which are necessary for the successful integration of E-teaching for effective language teaching in Pakistani context. Research has shown that learning strategies employed in Computer assisted language learning (CALL) can affect the quality of learning. However, though there has been some work on how to introduce and manage such programs in organizations, there is little work on this aspect in the context of Pakistan. The study reviews the theoretical foundations, existing practices, challenges faced, extent of local institutional readiness and possible mechanisms for integrating E-learning in classroom teaching. This work will help set the ground for assessing and starting such programs in Pakistani schools. </em></p> Ayesha Zafar, Kanwal Zahra, Zafeer Hussain Kiani Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/266 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative Examination of Female Representation in English Textbooks of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab Textbook Boards for Secondary Level https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/267 <p><em>Textbooks have been considered an essential element of the National Curriculum and are important in embedding and constructing ideologies through the use of language. The National Curriculum for English Language (NCEL, 2006) has outlined certain standards for the development of textbooks, of which gender is one bench mark embedded in “values and attributes” and “diversity and equality”. Our textbooks generally represent women in their contents but many of the studies</em><em> (Masud, 2017; Ullah &amp; Haque, 2016;&nbsp; Bloomberg, 2015; Jabeen, Chaudhary &amp; Omer, 2014;&nbsp; Ullah,&nbsp; Ali &amp; Naz, 2014; Hussain,&nbsp; Naseer &amp; Asfar, 2010; Hussain &amp; Asfar, 2009; Durrani, 2008; Mirza, 2004; Mattu &amp; Hussain, 2003) </em><em>show that the representation is quantitative in nature. The quality of that representation is stereotypical. In contrast to this stereotyping, the present study intends to compare secondary level English textbooks of two textbook boards, Punjab and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) which are developed following the standards of the National curriculum because apparently, the contents of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Textbook Board (AJKTB) reflect a fairly high amount of contents on women in comparison with Punjab Textbook Board (PTB). The comparison has been drawn on the representation of female characters in the textbook contents by using Fairclough’s “Three Dimensional Model” for discourse analysis. The study found out that woman representation in AJK textbooks is not only quantified but the quality of the contents is also trying to break the stereotypical positioning of women in the society. Whereas, the female characters in the textbooks of PTB are either not representing women or the representation is in quantitative form which is based on the stereotypical form of symbolization. Therefore, the study calls for the revision of the contents of PTB following the benchmarks of “values and attributes” and “diversity and equality” in their true spirit. </em></p> Shiza Javed, Fauzia Janjua Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/267 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Multilingualism in Education https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/268 <p><em>In multilingual communities, the literacy and linguistic practices in education represent the broader social and cultural context. The interaction between students and teachers and the interaction between peers pictures the literacy practices outside the classrooms and schools as well. This study takes into account the literacy practices of young learners inside and outside their classrooms. It studies the informal interactions between students and teachers inside the classrooms as well as the interaction between teachers and students outside the classrooms. Data is collected through classrooms observation from three different social strata of the society. 2 schools are selected from each strata so, in total 6 schools are the part of this study. The current study caters only to the informal linguistic and literacy practices between teachers and students inside and outside the classrooms. The data is categorized, and the results are deduced. The collected data reveals the conscious as well as unconscious efforts on parts of the teachers to interact in the desired language with the students. The multilingual literacy practices reveals that social class also has a major affect on the interaction between the teachers and the students. The social identity also affects the linguistic identity of the individuals. This causes the students to talk to their instructors in the preferred language even in the informal scenarios.</em></p> Ambreen Javed, Sarwet Rasul Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/268 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 A shift of conformist Culture from Mainstream to Margins https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/269 <p><em>The current study aims to conduct a diagnostic survey of American literature to investigate the connection between political and societal incidents in Americas and the transformations they brought upon the written word. The researcher has tried to map the causative agents from the societal and political scenario that materialized the modification from modernism to postmodernism in literature. Keeping the move from conformist culture as the main paradigm shift, the study analyzes the emergence of “conspiracy theory”, pluralistic approach, consumerism, identity politics, quest for identity and theme of madness while also bringing in its fold, the inclusion of marginalized voices into the published word. The research has established that the swing from modernism to postmodernism in American literature has been shaped by the societal and political fluctuations.</em></p> Rabia Bukhari, Mehwish Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/269 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500 A Phonological Analysis of English Loanwords in Brahui https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/271 <p><em>English language being lingua-franca of the world has given loanwords to most of the languages. Brahui is a language spoken in Balochistan. This study focusses on phonological changes occurring in loanwords of English in Sarawani dialect of Brahui. The basic aim of this study is to find out the reasons behind the phonological changes in English loanwords in Brahui. This study covers major phonological processes like substitution, deletion, insertion and metathesis, etc. Moreover, this study reveals that Brahui language does not accept the phonological rules of English, therefore, Brahui speakers modify English loanwords. The analysis of the data shows that the recipient language replaces those phonemes or structures of the foreign donor language which are unsuitable to its grammar. In the same way, most frequent and unmarked syllable types replace the unusual and marked ones. The data for the study was collected from the daily conversations of Brahui speakers. The study also provides a brief historical background of Brahui language, its origin and development.</em></p> Abdul Waheed Shah, Firdos Atta, Saira Bano, Nasir A. Syed Copyright (c) 2022 Kashmir Journal of Language Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://kjlr.pk/index.php/kjlr/article/view/271 Mon, 28 Feb 2022 00:00:00 -0500