Kashmir Journal of Language Research 2023-08-30T16:48:10-04:00 Prof. Dr. Nadeem Haider Bukhari Open Journal Systems <p><strong><em>KASHMIR JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE RESEARCH (KJLR)</em></strong> operates on a double-blind peer review policy; it is a scholarly journal of international recognition which publishes papers that report the findings of original research on the current trends and topics in literature, languages, and linguistics. The journal strives to advance scholarly and scientific discussion of issues that bring together or differentiate between scholars in above mentioned fields. Contributions handling applied linguistic problems in a principled way by reference to theoretical studies are of major interest for <em><strong>KJLR</strong></em>.</p> <p>Publication material in journal means that the author assigns copyright to KJLR including the right to electronic publishing. However, authors may use their material in others publications acknowledging <strong>KJLR</strong> as the original place of publication. Requests by third parties for permission should be addressed to the Editor, <strong>KJLR</strong>.</p> Billboards of Pakistani Automobile Mechanic Workshops 2023-08-30T15:19:06-04:00 Sarwet Rasul <p><em>Billboards are a source of immediate, on spot and permanent means of advertising. They do not require much linguistic proficiency for understanding; and the pictures and images accompanying the text correspond with the language to create meanings. The current study explores the visual literacy practices as exhibited on the billboards of auto-mechanic workshops in Pakistan. The study is based on the data collected from three localities of Rawalpindi and the surrounding areas within 100 kilometers radius including: 1) Rawalpindi City 2) Murree City, Company Bagh, Murree Expressway 3) and Dinna, and Gujjar Khan. The sample is collected from two social classes, the middle-middle class and the lower-middle class,in the form of pictures of billboards with a focus on the non- linguistic (visual) images. The model adapted for the research incorporates the theoretical approach of Critical Visual Analysis by Wang (2014)</em><em> derived from Critical Discourse Analysis developed by Fairclough (1989, 1995) which is further merged with </em><em>Visual Grammar framework as proposed by Kress and Van Leeuwen (2006)</em><em>.</em></p> <p><em>When it comes to the Pakistani Auto-mobile mechanic workshops the visual literacy practices operate as a means to persuade the customers. The aim of the current research is to examine the nature of non- linguistic visual literacy practices employed in designing the billboards of auto-mobile workshops in Pakistan, and to analyse the social and cultural implications of these non-linguistic visual literacies.These visual literacy practices reveal social class identities and professional affiliations. Symbolically the images on the billboards are the vectors to communicate the social and cultural meanings. From the perspective of ‘interactive dimension’ of Visual Grammar it is examined how modality serves as a&nbsp; marker of the degree of reality in the representation of images as a visual literacy practice as exhibited on the billboards of these workshops. The study explores the markers of modality or the factors that define modality of an image including color, reality by dominant society standards, sharpness, brightness, contrast, saturation and image background etc.Thus, the &nbsp;paper throws light on how and why the description and interpretation of these visual literacies need to be viewed in a larger social and cultural context to reveal the possible ways in which they affect the perceptions of viewers and potential customers.</em></p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research Ruiz’s (1984) language orientations 2023-08-30T15:26:51-04:00 Muhammad Zeeshan <p>In light of recent trends/development in language policy and planning (henceforth, LPP), this review paper argues that Ruiz’s (1984) language orientations conceptualization can be used as an analytical framework to better understand the possible ideological orientations (language attitudes/ideologies/beliefs) of explicit nature/macro policy actors and conceptual aspects/micro policy agents of LPP development in the given context. In other words, this analytical model could be used as a guide to analyze given LPP contexts, and to examine the attitudes of different key policy actors (i.e., language policy makers, print media journalists, English language teachers, English language students, among other possibilities) towards language(s). Consequently, in light of such analysis/examination, researchers can expose inequalities caused by the language policy of given contexts and, accordingly, may propose an LPP perspective that could foster social justice and equity. This paper also explains Ruiz’s concept of orientation and its key elements , i.e., language-as-problem, language-as-right and language-as-resource. The language-as-problem orientation considers linguistic diversity as a threat to a given polity. The language-as-right orientation advocates language as a fundamental human right. The language-as-resource orientation opposes the problem-oriented approach as it highlights the benefits of linguistic diversity. I hope this review helps develop understanding regarding Ruiz’s&nbsp; language theorization and its justification as an analtytical tool to analyze language orientations of macro and micro policy agents of LPP development in a given language policy context in general and in Pakistani context in particular.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research English and Mandarin 2023-08-30T15:38:19-04:00 Munaza Hasan Nasir <p>People make linguistic choices based on their attitudes toward languages. Linguistic attitudes are emotions toward a particular language used in a particular situation. Various individual characteristics influence the process of language learning (Williams &amp; Burden, 1997). Parents play a major role in transferring language to the next generation. The parents' attitudes towards a language strongly influence the language learning and linguistic preference of their children. Chambers (1999) states that students do not come to the class as a tabula rasa; rather they bring with them attitudes ‘born out of conversation’ with their families and friends. Therefore, to explore the linguistic landscape of urban Punjab, Pakistan it is imperative to explore the parental attitude and perception towards various languages in use in the province. This research will explore if Punjabi parents would transfer the Punjabi language to the next generation or if they would want their children to learn another language. This situation will be analyzed through the lens of Bourdieu’s linguistic capital theory where language serves as a currency that the speakers can use to define their position in society. Previously researchers have focused mostly on Pakistani students’ attitudes toward various languages. Research that explores the attitudes of Pakistani parents whose children go to elite English medium schools is scarce hence this research will fill that gap.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research Morphosyntactic Status of Pashto Light Verbs 2023-08-30T15:56:56-04:00 Inayat Ullah Nadeem Haider Bukhari <p>This paper is an attempt to provide a detailed description and analysis of the morphosyntactic status of light verbs in Pashto. Light verbs, which are found in all languages, have been intensively researched across the world. They have been studied cross-linguistically; however, most of the research has focused on Indo-Aryan languages, as these languages make pervasive use of light verbs in their syntactic structures. Pashto, an Indo-Iranian language, likewise makes considerable use of light verbs in its constructions called light verb constructions; however, light verbs in Pashto have remained unexplored to a greater extent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to fill this gap and provide a descriptive analysis of Pashto light verbs, especially from morphosyntactic perspective. The study follows a descriptive and qualitative approach and uses data collected from various sources, such as personal observation, Pashto books, articles, journals and other relevant sources, to highlight the hidden aspects of the Pashto light verbs.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research Discursive and Phonetic Analysis of Muniba Mazari Bloch’s Speech 2023-08-30T15:49:35-04:00 Mehak Shehzadi Azra Khanam Shabbir Ahmad <p>Presently, the Critical Discourse Analysis has developed differently and entered into a new phase. We find not only articles on Critical Discourse Analysis in academic journals but many speeches on online sources too. We see discursive videos and speeches on YouTube, TV and other digital platforms. One of the speeches that we come across is a motivational speech. This study presents the functional linguistic analysis of the famous motivational speech of Muniba Mazari Bloch, “We All Are Perfectly Imperfect” using the qualitative approach to explore the discursive use of sound patterns by Muniba Mazari Bloch. This analysis aims to shed light on the speech management by Mazari to inspire her listeners by the insightful selection and deployment of particular speech sounds, speech pragmatics, and rhythmic patterns. Research has been conducted using the M.A.K Halliday’s theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics which is based on the functions performed by the linguistic expressions in certain societal contexts/settings. The findings show that Muniba Mazari Bloch employs particular phonological style and supra segmental features of language to have an impact on the people who get influenced and inspired by her motivational speech. This study is useful for understanding the implicit interests of the speaker with the use of elegant speech phrases and the phonetic schemes to control the minds of her listeners.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research Raising Eco-Consciousness in Children through Picture Books 2023-08-30T16:48:10-04:00 Mamoona Aslam Maryam Ashfaq <p>Children at an early age learn things from the multimodal way of learning. Whatever children learn or observe, they keep it with them throughout life. So, raising eco-friendly children through picture books is one of the best ways to create eco-consciousness. This study aims to investigate picture books' efficacy in conveying knowledge about ecosystems. The concept of David Orr's ecological literacy shows how far literature is playing a role in raising environmental awareness. For this purpose, picture books are selected from English and Pakistani children's fiction, i.e., 10 Things I can do to help my world, Penguins do not wear sweaters, Can we save tigers, Kaala Bhoot, and kho kho kho. After evaluating both fictions, it is evident that picture books are used to raise ecological literacy among children. Moreover, it is assessed that English fiction is a step forward from Pakistani fiction in raising awareness as it focuses on environmental concerns of modern-day life while Pakistani fiction is still in its very initial stages.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research Urdu Language Attrition Due to the Preference for English 2023-08-30T15:59:14-04:00 Ume Amin Abdul Qadir Khan <p><em>This research aims to explore the linguistic behavior of Azad Kashmir speakers among two generations and their linguistic preferences to determine their degree of shift/maintenance. Being a Mixed Method study, the research utilized both quantitative and qualitative data gathered through a questionnaire administered to 112 speakers, 52 females with the count of 26 each in both generations, and 60 males from Gen X and Millennials, residing in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, followed by in-depth interviews of 10 key informants from the adult generation to analyze the psychological and sociological factors responsible for the attrition. The research findings indicate clear signs of Urdu language attrition among the Kashmiri community living in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, despite having a positive attitude towards the Urdu language, which is indicative of a high sense of ethnolinguistic vitality. It seems that the process of partial shift has started in the Millennial group. The impact and level of attrition in Gen Z is unexplored to date, which can be studied in future. Keeping in view the existing sociolinguistic conditions in the context of AJK, where high socio-economic importance is attached to English, it is expected that the attrition process may get completed in 4-5 decades, with a complete loss of competence in the national language and the native language of thousands of AJK residents. The findings of this study can lead to the awareness needed to maintain linguistic and cultural diversity at both regional and national levels in Pakistan and can accelerate the efforts to bring reforms to the country's existing language and education policy.</em></p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research An investigation of deictic expressions in the selected poems of Sylvia Plath 2023-08-30T15:44:34-04:00 Samia Tabassum Muammad Iqbal Butt Ghulam Ali <p>The aim of the present study is to explore the function of deixis in the selected poems of Sylvia Plath. The prime interest is to study the role of deixis in unfolding the existing ambiguity in poetry and to explore the interdependency of deictic expressions and unique poetic style which exhibits the mind style of the poetess. The use of deixis shows a close association between the subjectivity of the speaker, the context of speech event and structure of language. Eight poems are selected through purposive sampling for the present study. It is a qualitative research; employing Levinson’s described categories of deixis. The main focus is on person, spatial and temporal deixis. Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) by M.A.K Halliday is used for textual analysis. The finding exhibits the dominance of first person pronoun in all its forms (I, my, we, and us) occurring 140 times. The use of personal pronouns, spatial and temporal adverbs assists the poetess to relate her personal experiences and her visions in a specific spatial and temporal framework. The current study proposes that the use of lexico-grammatical patterns like deictic expressions with other elements of language have the capacity to convey the textual message.</p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research Grammatical Errors in ESL Writings 2023-08-30T15:31:39-04:00 Sabir Hussain Shah <p><em>This study examines the errors committed by ESL learners at two educational levels in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir. The main purpose of the study is to investigate different types of errors in English essays of ESL learners. It also aims at revealing the most and least frequent errors of these learners in their writing. It further intends to compare these errors at secondary and higher secondary levels to determine whether the grammatical errors increase, decrease or remain same at these two levels. For the collection and analysis of data, Gass and Selinker’s (2008) Model for Error Analysis has been replicated. To find statistically significant differences among the learners of both levels, an independent t-test was used.&nbsp; The results reveal that ESL learners commit verb, tense/aspect, concord, word-order and infinitive errors in their writings. The frequencies of these errors vary at secondary and higher secondary levels. Significant differences have been found among secondary and higher secondary level learners in concord, tense/aspect and word order errors. On the other hand, no significant difference exists among the learners of these levels in verb and infinitive errors.</em></p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research Continuous Professional Development and Self-Determination Theory 2023-08-30T16:19:04-04:00 Muhammad Kamal Khan Shahid Siddiqui <p><em>Continuous Professional Development (CPD) for teachers is an active process effectively influencing their external behavior as well as their internal state of mind. Teachers participate in CPD programs either officially (with extrinsic motivation) or voluntarily (with intrinsic motivation) and their enthusiasm directly impacts the success of their activities. The more motivated the teachers are about their CPD activities, the higher are the chances to achieve their goals of personal and professional growth (Yang, 2021). On this background, the present paper explores Pakistani TEFLers’ motivation to CPD program using the theoretical framework of self-determination theory (SDT). For this purpose, data from 320 Master of Arts (MA) in Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) program participants were collected through a purposively created survey questionnaire. These participants were otherwise English language teachers in their respective schools, colleges and universities and were pursuing their MA TEFL as an additional CPD program. The findings of the study showed that intrinsic motivation is a main factor for Pakistani TEFLers to participate in MA TEFL as a CPD program. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) specifically showed that inner-directed academic improvement is the major motivation for Pakistani TEFLers to complete this program. The study has implications for CPD planning for English language teachers at provincial and federal levels in addition to highlighting need for further studies on teachers’ basic psychological support and qualitative aspects on CPD in the Pakistani context.</em></p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research Students’ Perception of Code-Switching as Pedagogical Tool in Multilingual EFL Classrooms: A Social Justice Perspective 2023-08-30T16:09:52-04:00 Imdad Ullah Khan Aftab Ahmed Sana Gul <p><em>The act of switching back and forth between two languages, varieties, or dialects, typically during a single conversation, is referred to as code-switching. In multilingual, bilingual, and translanguaging contexts, code-switching is a significant phenomenon that affects cognition, communication, and students' language acquisition. The benefits and drawbacks of language switching for L2 learners have been hotly debated ever since the 1980s. However, these studies are often more focused on teachers’ beliefs and perceptions about code-switching paying little attention to how students perceive the use of code-switching in an L2 classroom. The current article's goal is to gain a better understanding of how students at an English-medium university in a Pashto-majority area of northern Pakistan feel about the practice of code-switching. The study's data was collected using questionnaires that included both closed- and open-ended questions. The results of the study suggest that students are supportive of their teachers' deliberate use of code-switching; however, in the university’s multilingual classes, the language that the teacher switches to must be understood by all students to prevent the minority group that does not understand the teachers' native language from feeling excluded. The article concludes with the implication of this study for English as a medium of instruction in higher education in Pakistani and other analogous teaching environments.</em></p> 2023-06-26T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Language Research