Finite Verb Morphology in Pahari


  • Shahida Khalique Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of AJ&K, Muzaffarabad
  • Tahira Jabeen Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of AJ&K, Muzaffarabad
  • Asma Iqbal Lecturer, Department of English, Women University Bagh, AJ&K


Morphology, Pahari, Finite Verb, Tense, Aspect, Mood


This paper presents the analysis and description of finite verb morphology in Pahari spoken in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Similar to other sister languages, verbs in Pahari too inflects for tense, aspect, and mood and also reflects gender, number, person and honour. Tenses and aspects in most of the languages of the world are realised through morphological means. This study identifies that the suffixes on verbs encode the habitual and progressive aspects while the perfective aspects are encoded by light verbs in complex predicates. Pahari distinguishes between simple and complex tense forms. The simple tense is formed by the main verb alone bearing tense, aspect and agreement morphology whereas the complex tense is formed by the main verb followed by an auxiliary, where the auxiliary carries tense information. The future tense in Pahari is encoded by a suffix on the main verb.  Both the main verb and auxiliary inflect for person gender and number. In some cases where the construction has no auxiliary, the main verb itself is marked for person, gender and number. Pahari verbs show distinction of imperative, subjunctive and presumptive moods which show different attitudes of the speaker. The study shows that imperative mood is indicated with the verb stem, without any modification. The verb in the Imperative mood occurs in agreement with the person of the subject, and it is not inflected for tense, aspect.  Pahari uses the presumptive for future and the subjunctive for desires and suggestions. The use of subjunctive mood is conditioned to certain words and phrases, particularly those words and phrases expressing contingency or doubt, and also by some kinds of dependent clauses. The presumptive mood in Pahari is used to express hypothesis, uncertainty or presupposition.