Voicing Sexism

Reflections from the Primary Level English Textbooks of Government Schools in Punjab


  • Shamshad Rasool Lecturer, University of Gujrat, Gujrat
  • Saiqa Imtiaz Asif Professor, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
  • Behzad Anwar Assistant Professor, University of Gujrat, Gujrat


Language, sexism, curricula, discourse, gender bias, social and cultural codes, stereotypes


Sexist language degrades and belittles the dignity of an individual or group of individuals, generally females. Such careless use of language yields standardized social and cultural codes. The researches during the last four decades reflect occurrences of sexism in the curricula. The present study examines sexism imbued in the contents of the primary level English textbooks. Five textbooks being used from grades 1 to 5 have been analyzed in the light of gender theory employing Mixed Methods research. The study comes up that despite serious commitments of the Government of Pakistan to eliminate gender bias from the education setups the contents of the study material contain the discourses which reinforce the sexist construction and contribute to the transformation and naturalization of gender inequality and stereotypes. The findings imply that practical and serious efforts are required to translate the commitments of the government into reality.